On December 12, 2019, the Mexican Senate adopted the revised treaty by 107 votes to 1.  On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced its readiness to implement the agreement and joined Canada, although it requested that its auto industry have additional time to comply with the agreement.  The USMCA requires automakers to produce at least 75% of the car`s components in Canada, Mexico or the United States. Previously, it was 62.5%. At least 40% of the value of a car and 45% of a light truck must be manufactured by workers who earn an average of $16 per hour. Cars that do not meet these requirements are subject to sales rates. The agreement protects Mexico and Canada from future U.S. tariffs on cars. The agreement is the result of a renegotiation between the member states of the North American Free Trade Agreement, which informally adopted the terms of the new agreement on 30 September 2018 and officially on 1 October.  The USMCA was proposed by U.S. President Donald Trump and signed on November 30, 2018 by Trump, Mexican President Enrique Pea Nieto and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau as a secondary event of the 2018 G20 summit in Buenos Aires. A revised version was signed on December 10, 2019 and ratified by the three countries, with final ratification (Canada) taking place on March 13, 2020 just before the Canadian Parliament adjourned due to the COVID-19 pandemic. But other economists, including Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Cathleen Cimino-Isaacs of the Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE), have pointed out that increased trade is paying off the U.S.
economy. Some jobs are lost because of imports, others are created and consumers benefit greatly from lower prices and often improved product quality. Your 2014 PIIE study on the impact of NAFTA revealed a net loss of about 15,000 jobs per year as a result of the pact – but gains of about $450,000 for each job lost, in the form of higher productivity and lower consumer prices. On Tuesday, Democrats said they had agreed with the White House on new provisions and planned to support the deal in a vote. After the agreement was signed, Mr. Trump threatened to end NAFTA if Congress did not repeal the USMCA. For President Trump, who called NAFTA “the worst trade deal in the country`s history,” the final end of the agreement is welcome. The U.S.-Mexico agreement is based on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which originally came into force on January 1, 1994. The agreement under consideration was the result of more than a year of negotiations including possible U.S. tariffs on Canada, in addition to the possibility of separate bilateral agreements.  Much of the debate among political experts has focused on how to mitigate the negative effects of agreements such as NAFTA, including whether workers who lose their jobs are compensated or whether they are proposing retraining programs to help them move into new sectors.
Experts say programs such as U.S. Trade Adjustment Assistance (AAT), which helps workers pay for education or training to find new jobs, could help rebuke anger over trade liberalization. On September 30, the United States and Canada arrived at a new trade that addresses many of the controversial issues between Canada and the reintroduction of NAFTA. Canada ratified the agreement in March and the USMCA came into force on July 1, 2020. Although NAFTA is officially dead, governments and businesses are still adapting to the new rules, especially the new labour rules.